EVs: The Driving Force Behind Three Key Battery Metals

January 23, 2023
Learn More

Key Observations:

  • Global battery demand is expected to grow at a 25% annual rate through the end of the decade, driven primarily by the rapid growth of electric vehicles.1
  • The race is on to secure raw materials to enable battery production—core battery metals lithium, nickel and cobalt are critical to meeting the growing demand.
  • Companies that mine these three core metals are expected to be key beneficiaries of electrification.

Electric Vehicle Growth to Trigger Huge Demand for Batteries

An energy revolution is underway. As part of global initiatives to reduce emissions, electricity is the fastest-growing consumer energy2 and will play a key role in decarbonizing the building, industrial, and transportation sectors. While there has been a rapid adoption of electric vehicles (EVs), we are still in the very early stages of the transformation. Approximately 20 million passenger electric vehicles are on global roads today, but that represents less than 2% of total number of cars.3

Global Passenger EV Sales Are Increasing

Global Passenger EV Sales Are Increasing Vehicle Fleet Chart
Source: BloombergNEF, "Electric Vehicle Outlook 2022,” 2022.

… But Still Represent a Tiny Fraction of Total Passenger Vehicles on
the Road Today

Total Passenger Vehicles on the Road Chart
Source: BloombergNEF, "Electric Vehicle Outlook 2022,” 2022.

Battery Demand Requires a Plentiful Supply of Critical Metals

Among the key dependencies to meeting global EV demand will be sourcing the materials required to manufacture batteries and related components. Batteries to power EVs require a range of metals and other elements like silicon and graphite. But three metals in particular—lithium, cobalt and nickel—are core battery metals for two important economic reasons.

First, battery demand represents a large and growing percentage of the overall market demand for lithium, nickel and cobalt. For example, battery production is projected to account for 90% of all lithium demand by 2026.1 Nickel’s primary use today is stainless steel, but use in batteries is expected to double in the coming years as nickel-intensive battery chemistries have improved driving range over other battery formulations.1, 4 In contrast, demand for metals like aluminum and copper comes more heavily from uses other than batteries.5  

Lithium, Nickel and Cobalt Demand is Rising Rapidly Because of Their Use in Batteries

Battery Demand Percentage of Total Metal Demand Chart for Nickel Cobalt and Lithium
Source: S&P Global Market Intelligence; China Automotive Battery Alliance, as of 10/24/22.

Second, lithium, nickel and cobalt are all expected to face significant supply crunches in the coming years. Lithium’s supply gap is expected to be severe by 2035, perhaps as much as 24% of the total demand.6 Core battery metals are often concentrated in a relatively small number of geographically remote locations. The vast supply of cobalt, for example, is concentrated in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Significantly ramping up production of the core battery metals is challenging and could take many years.1 

We Believe Companies That Mine May Be Key Beneficiaries

Like other transformative trends, the explosion in EV demand will undoubtedly produce a series of winners and losers. One segment expected to be a key beneficiary from the coming electrification are the companies that mine core battery metals. The coming supply crunch will likely keep core battery metals demand high, allowing miners to extract at favorable prices. We believe incumbent miners of core battery metals appear to be well positioned and already control much of the market. The top 10 global lithium producers control 83% of the market.1 Newer entrants will be challenged to find and produce new reserves in a timely and economic manner. In short, we believe the existing miners will likely see their revenues and profits continue to expand for many years.

Capturing the Growth Opportunity with a Single Investment

To access the continuing growth potential of EV batteries, consider ProShares S&P Global Core Battery Metals ETF (ION). ION is the first ETF to invest only in companies mining battery metals.

Click here for fund performance.


1S&P Global Market Intelligence, 9/21/22.
2The Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, “Energy Networks in the Energy Transition Era,” May 2022.
3BloombergNEF, "Electric Vehicle Outlook 2022," 2022.
4Geology.com, “Facts About Nickel,” 2022.
5SkyQuest Technology Consulting PVT. Ltd., “Global Aluminum Market to Hit Sales of $238.2 Billion by 2028: Over Production and Declined Demand Have Reduced Profit Margin of Producer by $120 per Ton,” 11/16/22. USGS, Copper Statistics and Information, 2022.
6BCG, “The Lithium Supply Crunch Doesn’t Have to Stall Electric Cars,” 8/31/22.

Learn More


S&P Global Core Battery Metals ETF

The first ETF to invest only in companies mining battery metals.

A green energy revolution is underway, fueling demand for lithium-ion batteries and metals needed to make them—lithium, nickel and cobalt.

Get the latest perspectives and updates.

This information is not meant to be investment advice. There is no guarantee that the strategies discussed will be effective. Investment comparisons are for illustrative purposes only and not meant to be all-inclusive.

Any forward-looking statements herein are based on expectations of ProShare Advisors LLC at this time. ProShare Advisors LLC undertakes no duty to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

Investing is currently subject to additional risks and uncertainties related to COVID-19, including general economic, market and business conditions; changes in laws or regulations or other actions made by governmental authorities or regulatory bodies; and world economic and political developments.

Investing involves risk, including the possible loss of principal. This ProShares ETF is subject to certain risks, including the risk that the fund may not track the performance of the index and that the fund’s market price may fluctuate, which may decrease performance. Please see summary and full prospectuses for a more complete description of risks. There is no guarantee any ProShares ETF will achieve its investment objective.

Companies engaged in battery metals mining are subject to various risks, including: changes in the supply of and demand for battery metals; price changes resulting from inflation and inflation expectations; supply chain and other disruptions due to changing world events, economic conditions and political risks; currency fluctuations; regulatory and legislative scrutiny of the environmental impact of battery metal mining; and risks associated with the development of mineral deposits.

The index theme may not be the primary driver of company, index or fund performance. Companies in the index may have significant unrelated business lines, which could have a significant negative impact on company, index and fund performance.

Investments in non-U.S. securities may involve risks different from U.S. securities, including risks from geographic concentration, differences in valuation and valuation times, unfavorable fluctuations in currency, differences in generally accepted accounting principles, and from economic or political instability.

Investments in emerging markets generally are less liquid, more volatile and riskier than investments in more developed markets and are considered to be speculative.

Investments in smaller companies typically exhibit higher volatility. Small- and mid-cap companies may have limited product lines or resources, may be dependent upon a particular market niche and may have greater fluctuations in price than the stocks of larger companies. Small- and mid-cap companies may lack the financial and personnel resources to handle economic or industry-wide setbacks and, as a result, such setbacks could have a greater effect on small- and mid-cap security prices.

This ProShares ETF is non-diversified and concentrates its investments in certain sectors. Non-diversified and narrowly focused investments typically exhibit higher volatility.

Carefully consider the investment objectives, risks, charges and expenses of ProShares before investing. This and other information can be found in their summary and full prospectuses. Read them carefully before investing.

Shares of any ETF are generally bought and sold at market price (not NAV) and are not individually redeemed from the fund. Brokerage commissions will reduce returns.

The "S&P Global Core Battery Metals Index" is a product of S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC and its affiliates and has been licensed for use by ProShares. "S&P®" is a registered trademark of Standard & Poor's Financial Services LLC ("S&P") and "Dow Jones®" is a registered trademark of Dow Jones Trademark Holdings LLC ("Dow Jones") and have been licensed for use by S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC and its affiliates. ProShares have not been passed on by S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC and its affiliates as to their legality or suitability. ProShares based on the "S&P Global Core Battery Metals Index" are not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC, Dow Jones, S&P or their respective affiliates, and they make no representation regarding the advisability of investing in ProShares. THESE ENTITIES AND THEIR AFFILIATES MAKE NO WARRANTIES AND BEAR NO LIABILITY WITH RESPECT TO PROSHARES.

ProShares are distributed by SEI Investments Distribution Co., which is not affiliated with the funds’ advisor or sponsor.

Your use of this site signifies that you accept our Terms and Conditions of Use.